Capturing the bird’s-eye view has been a driving ambition for many throughout the course of history. For artists, the driver has been seeing human endeavour from a new perspective, whilst others have seen commercial or military advantage in securing the unique overview which only aerial photography can provide. In this article we’ll briefly examine the history of aerial photography from early attempts using balloons to today’s spectacular achievements using drones.
Balloons and Platforms
The earliest recorded instance of aerial photography dates to 1858 when balloonist Gaspar Felix Tournachon, also a keen photographer, developed an interest in mapping and surveying by photographic means. Tournachon managed to produce some photographs of Petit-Becetre, a French village – though no copies of this feat survive. The process employed a tethered balloon suspended at a height of 80 metres, and also demanded the services of a fully equipped onboard darkroom. Others, like meteorologist E. D. Archibald in 1882, used kites to capture unique photographic images, whilst an intrepid few scaled precarious high platforms, or experimented with the deployment of camera-toting rockets and carrier pigeons.
The Great War
Flight and photography advanced towards each other at the dawn of the twentieth century: The Kodak Brownie box camera appeared in February, 1900, followed soon afterwards by the historic flight of the Wright brothers in December 1903. However, the advent of the 1914-18 World War brought a more ominous incentive for the development of aerial reconnaisance. Aerial photos rapidly displaced the earlier drawings of airborne military observers, and camera designs were soon adapted to meet new military demands. As the Great War drew to a close, Sherman M. Fairchild’s lens fitted with an internal shutter made its first appearance – an innovation destined to influence aerial camera design for half a century.
Aviation’s Photo Pioneers
Like the fast-expanding aviation business, commercial aerial photography got off the ground quickly. Launched in 1919, the UK’s Aerofilms Ltd, based in Edgware, was the first-ever specialist aerial-photography company and secured lucrative contracts around the world. Aerofilms began mapping and surveying in the 1920s, moving on to work with the Ordnance Survey in the 1930s. In the US, Fairchild began developing aircraft for high-altitude surveying and by 1935 had perfected a method using twin synchronised cameras at 23,000 feet for mapping purposes. Just 12 months later, Fairchild’s survey aircraft were operating at 30,000 feet.
Once again, military conflict sparked new developments, and in 1938 von Fritsch, Chief of the German General Staff observed: ‘The nation with the best photo reconnaissance will win the next war.’ Many German-inspired technologies emerged, together with advances in methods of interpreting aerial photographic data. The 1941 sinking of Germany’s iconic battleship ‘Bismarck’ was assisted by aerial reconnaisance, as was the British bombing raid on Norwegian V2 rocket sites in 1943. In 1944, aerial photography was crucial to the success of the D-Day landings with US pilots deploying the new Trimetrigon camera for detailed mapping of coastal defences.
Giant Leaps in Aerial Photography
Post-war, aerial photography continued to develop with renewed emphasis on commercial, non-military applications. The first space photos were taken in 1946 using cameras attached to V2 rockets, and ‘Cold War’ aerial surveillance advanced with the first reconnaissance missions flown by Lockheed U-2s in 1954. The Russians took cameras into space aboard Sputnik-1 in 1957, heralding the arrival of satellite imagery. Fairchild also lived to witness his cameras become standard issue on US Apollo spacecraft, and later being employed to map the moon’s surface. By this time, digital camera technologies included sensors, colour-infrared- and multispectral range techniques.
Robotic Eyes in the Skies
Contemporary drone aerial photography uses digital resources, GPS navigation, and gyro-stabilised cameras. It is also established as the primary means of capturing high-resolution images for a host of military and commercial purposes. Advances in unmanned flight technologies, together with the falling price of computers and software, have seen drones and UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) become commercially available. Furthermore, as powerful microsystems and smart technologies rapidly evolve, drones and UAVs are allowing increasing numbers of photographers to fly cameras. Stunning aerial images are becoming commonplace and are redefining the scope and application of aerial photography.
Where once an aerial view could only be obtained after a great deal of effort and expense, nowadays this feat can be achieved quickly, easily – and remarkably cheaply using many different types of quadcopters and other drones.. In addition, more views of real-life action can be achieved from a greater variety of perspectives, and almost as easily as taking holiday snaps. Such autonomy now allows individuals to offer professional aerial photography services in a range of commercial fields seeking to obtain aerial overviews more cheaply, for example in mapping and surveying applications, alongside industries such as agriculture where falling costs now allow aerial reconnaissance tools to be employed for an ever expanding range of tasks.
Some of the aerial photography businesses now emerging began life as solo quadcopter operators who have since passed through professional training and gained a certificate of competence from an organisation qualified to do so. These organisations (NQE – National Qualified Entity) are assessed by the CAA before being endorsed for UAS (unmanned aerial system) training. Some of these new businesses are existing photographic agencies who wish to expand into aerial photography because they do not want to miss out on the obvious opportunities. Others are keen amateurs who have found that they can earn a living in a way that would amaze the early operators of heavy cameras aboard tethered balloons.